Robert S. Duncanson – Part III

“The Vale of Cashmere” Robert S. Duncanson

Robert Duncanson had a hard time finishing, “Land of the Lotus Eaters.” It’s hard to focus when your country’s in a civil war, I suppose. He did finally wrap it up and in May, he even exhibited it. You know, it never dawned on me to think about exhibitions happening during the Civil War. I’m gonna go ahead and assume that most folks aren’t thinking about that either.

The exhibition took place in the Pike’s building. Now, this information comes from a big fat book called, “A History of African-American Artists,” but it doesn’t expand upon what the Pike building was or why an exhibition would have taken place there. So, after a little digging, I’m going to infer that the Pike building they’re referring to was actually, Pike’s Opera House. And the reason I believe it might have been exhibited here, is because it was a theater and the building was completed in 1859, just two years before “The Land of the Lotus Eaters,” was completed.  It was an ideal place for new art to be seen by patrons of the arts. Plus, I didn’t find another building by that name. So…

The Cincinnati Weekly Gazette mentioned the exhibition on May 30, 1861, and mentioned that Duncanson’s painting looked a little like Frederick E. Church’s work titled, “Heart of the Andes,” which had been shown earlier in Cincinnati. Did Duncanson bite Church’s work? Mmmm… maybe… a little bit. I can kinda see it. Both works are incredibly beautiful though.

According to the Gazette, the exhibition was scheduled for eight days. Then Duncanson was supposed to exhibit “Land of the Lotus Eaters” and a painting titled, “Western Tornado,” in Canada and then take “Land of the Lotus Eaters” to London to be sold.

Keep in mind, right now, the civil war was happening, and if you thought that a big chunk of this episode would be focused on the civil war because of this time period, you would be wrong. Because we’re talking about Robert S. Duncanson. In 1863, in the middle of the Civil War, he moved to Montreal. He was obviously a lover, not a fighter. I mean, a lover of art, that is. Upon his arrival, he met the photographer, William A. Notman. Notman was a leading photographer in Canada, shooting portraits of prominent national, international and religious leaders. Notman was like J.P. Ball, the renown African American Cincinnati photographer, Duncanson worked with, beginning in 1851 – but on a much bigger scale. Public figures from all over Canada came to his studio and his work won prizes in Europe. Notman took photos of Natives, marketplaces and various social gatherings that gave his work a photojournalistic feel. Duncanson was immediately hired by Notman.

Also, it’s interesting to note, that one of the only known photographs of Duncanson, was taken by Notman. In the photo, you see him sitting in a chair sideways, leaning on a table, with his hat and a cane in one hand. He isn’t looking into the camera. It’s like he’s looking at the floor several feet in front of him, slightly to his right. His hair is parted on one side and his curly hair is slicked over his head in a comb-over. Whatever his hair color, you can tell it isn’t black. He wears an overcoat, and only the top button is fastened.

Outside of working for Notman, Duncanson continued painting local landscapes. In December 1863, Notman published his first volume of photographs, which was made up of forty-four photos of paintings plus two photographs of natural scenes. Of course, it included two of Duncanson’s works – “Land of the Lotus Eaters,” and a new work titled, “City Harbour of Montreal.”

He continued to paint and sell painted local scenes to influential Canadians, who, at the time, were attempting to develop an artistic and cultural life. And when the Art Association of Montreal (which was founded in 1860) opened an exhibition on February 11, 1864, Duncanson, again had the chance to exhibit his prized painting, “Land of the Lotus Eaters,” along with another painting titled, “Prairie Fire.”

Now, I did see a painting titled, “The Prairie Fire,” and that it is estimated to be created around 1850, but I couldn’t find a painting with this specific name, “Prairie Fire” attributed to Duncanson online. The painting I found was on and was from The Blanton Museum of Art. Curiously, there is no artist attributed to this painting… so… I don’t know whose painting this is. I’m not an art authenticator so I can’t say that it’s Duncanson’s.

The art scene was suddenly poppin’ in Canada and on February 27, 1865, The Art Association of Montreal opened another exhibition and this time Duncanson exhibited seven oil paintings and a watercolor among the works of artists like George Inness, J.F. Cropsey and Albert Bierstadt. I don’t have a full list of the eight works he exhibited, but one of them included a work titled, “The Vale of Cashmere.”

He stayed there for a while, in Montreal – and exhibited and taught there and in Toronto. At this point, you might have wondered where his wife has been in all of this. They’re both in Detroit. Duncanson lived in Cincinnati and his wife and youngest son lived in Detroit. I have no idea why.

Then, the summer he exhibited “The Vale of Cashmere,” in 1865, Duncanson finally landed in London – again! It’s assumed that the commissions and exhibitions he landed in Canada, along with the help of his new Canadian network and antislavery organizations in Scotland, helped make this London trip happen.


A History of African-American Artists from 1792 to the Present, Bearden and Henderson, 1993, Pantheon, pp. 19 – 39

Cleveland Art Museum:

Robert S. Duncanson – Part II

“Blue Hole, Little Miami River,” circa 1851, Robert S. Duncanson

Robert S. Duncanson, fresh and wide-eyed, had only been in Cincinnati for maybe a couple of months when a tense exchange took place in the Summer of 1841 in Cincinnati, in, of all places, a candy shop!

On June 25th, 1841, Cornelius Burnett, a White English immigrant who also happened to be an abolitionist, and owner of a candy store, got into it with a White man from Kentucky and a constable who were trying to arrest a mulatto man, accused of being a fugitive slave hiding out at Burnett’s candy store. The confrontation got physical and Burnet and his son injured both the constable and the White man from Kentucky, who I believe was the supposed owner of the claimed fugitive.

So, the candy store owner, Burnett, and his son, were arrested and held on $3,000 bail. A crowd formed because of this incident. Then, a white mob started breaking windows and threatening nearby houses during the initial confrontation and then another mob formed when the father and son were taken to jail. This mob tried to attack Burnett, but the sheriff had none of that. So, the father and son were safe, for a time. A third mob formed the next day to try to destroy the Burnett property, but this mob was also broken up by the Sheriff. The Burnetts were charged and convicted… of something, what the exact charges were, I’m not sure.

Here is why this incident is important, and why the conflict most likely happened in the first place (I know I’m going off into the weeds a little bit, but stay with me). In May of 1841, remember, the candy store fight took place in June) a judge made an extra-judicial comment on a fugitive slave case that stated that slaves willingly brought to Ohio were technically free because state law didn’t allow slavery. This emboldened some abolitionists in their fight, but it also increased the violence against Black people and abolitionists throughout the state.

But even before Duncanson arrived, African Americans and abolitionists had been suffering violence at the hands of White anti-Black and anti-abolitionist mobs that year. In January, in Dayton, at the court house where an abolition speech was to take place, a White mob threatened the courthouse and rioted for two days, burning down the houses of Black residences. The only ones arrested were the Black people defending themselves. Reading about so much of the violence happening in Ohio in 1841 was very distressing as I was doing the research. Another example – A Black man and a White woman (said to be his wife) were attacked in Cleveland – busting up their house and burning her with coals… In Ripley, two men broke a Black man’s skull, killing him because he had a job that paid him enough to pay off a loan to his mother-in-law who helped buy his freedom from slavery.

According to his dissertation titled, “Community Development for a White City: Race Making; Improvementism and the Cincinnati Race Riots of 1829, 1836 and 1841, by Silas Niobeh Tsaba Crowfoot, multiple stories from newspapers in New Orleans were reprinted in the Cincinnati Gazette, which called for renewed Black oppression through legislation and local customary prejudice behavior. The articles encouraged driving out the free Black people in the area and the harshest treatment for perceived insult on any Black person, free or enslaved.

Of course, reprinting these articles only fanned the flames in an already boiling social climate. And, how would these already hate-filled Cincinnatians feel knowing that the South is now dumping their free Blacks into their yard?

Several incidents occurred in which Black citizens of Cincinnati were accused of all sorts of things, from competing for jobs with White laborers, to jumping out in front of a respectable “White lady” – not assault or robbery or anything… just being there and scaring her, to theft to physical assault. And on top of everything, Southerners were calling the citizens of Cincinnati, “thieves,” for informing their Black citizens of their rights.

Robert S. Duncanson – Part I

Land of the Lotus Eaters, 1861

In doing the research for Duncanson, I had so much juicy information, that instead of trying to cram it all into one episode, I decided to really dig in and give you as much as I could, without going down a rabbit hole. So, unlike the other artists on this podcast, I’ve broken Duncanson’s story into three parts. In this one, of course, I’d like to cover his earliest years – Please note, though, that I won’t go too early because there’s not a lot of information on his childhood.

In the second part, I’d like to cover Duncanson’s life and work leading up to the Civil War and in the final part, I’ll wrap it up with his journey’s end. The end, at least on this plane. Also, because I’ve read different things about Duncanson’s life, accounts are written in a way that may, on the surface conflict with mine, I need to say upfront, that a lot of my source material comes from the 1993 book titled, “A History of African-American Artists: From 1792 to the present,” by the fine artist Romare Bearden and journalist, Harry Henderson. Because I actually know who the authors of this book are as well as their methods of research, I’m tend to trust their information.

Okay, so, Robert Scott Duncanson was born in 1823, in Seneca County, in New York. His mother was a Black woman from Cincinnati who most likely ran off to Canada, because, why not? Being a free Black woman in the 1800s was still hard. Keep in mind, Robert Duncanson was born almost 40 years before the Civil War, so, though Ohio was a free state, it was right at the edge of slaveholding states. The existence of slavery was felt everywhere, not just in slaveholding states. And when I say it was “felt” – I probably don’t have to explain this, but – I’m saying African Americans felt this. Even the free ones.

Duncanson’s father was a Canadian of Scottish decent. Not much is known about him. What is known, is that at some point his mother and father separated. And I know this is not a big part of the telling of Duncanson’s story, but I did wish I knew why. It’s kind of like when celebrities break up… sometimes you want to know why… Anyway… His mother left her son in the care of his father. At what age? We don’t know. But his mother went back to Cincinnati to be with her family.

Now, growing up in Canada meant that Duncanson was educated through the Canadian public school system, which was said to be top notch at the time, especially when you compare it to the education Black school children were receiving (and weren’t allowed to receive) in the U.S. There’s absolutely no comparison!  So, with this excellent education he developed this passion for literature – English literature in particular. This love of literature would be the source of inspiration for many of Duncanson’s future works.

In 1841, so when he was around eighteen, Duncanson packed up and left Canada to go live with his mom in Cincinnati. Not really sure what happened there – whether his father passed away or if he just missed his mom, or was seeking some type of opportunity his mom had told him about in Ohio, but he did join her. Now, they must have been pretty close since, a Black man leaving Canada to come and live in a state at the dangerous edge of slavery is kind of unheard of.  Then again, he did grow up in Canada. And he was very young. His perspective is going to be a little… different.

It might’ve been Cincinnati’s art scene that took him out there. He most likely was aware of his own artistic talents before he left. And Cincinnati had about a hundred artists in the city, and they’d had art schools there since the 1800s. Still, Cincinnati, though a free state was influenced heavily by slaveholders. “They considered it a southern town on free soil.” However, it was a station on the Underground Railroad.

Just to remind you, the Underground Railroad was a secret network of individuals and safehouses to assist other people escaping slavery.

So, let’s talk a little about Cincinnati. At the time, the city’s leaders wanted Cincinnati to be this great cultured community. I read that they were calling themselves “The Queen City of the West.” So, I’m not sure if anyone else was calling them that… also, I don’t know who “The Queen City of the East” is either… But city leaders, including Nicholas Longworth, who made his money through law, banking, real estate and wine, wanted to compete with the sophistication of eastern cities so they pushed for the city to build like crazy – colleges; an opera house; law and medical schools; observatories and other scientific institutions.

Cincinnati was interesting because several cultural influences were melting into the city. There were the East Coast business men; there were European immigrants looking to create a new life; there were Western hunters and Rivermen.

By the way, I looked up what Rivermen were, because I wanted to find out if we should be calling them “river people.” I’d never heard of rivermen before, but the word sounded self-explanatory, but… you never know. So, when I did my initial research, the first thing I came across was the professional hockey team, the Peoria Rivermen.  I saw their logo and was pretty certain of what I’d find. Digging slightly deeper, I confirmed that Rivermen were pretty much what they sounded like – people who worked on or along the river. Because of the time period, I can safely assume that these were mostly men working on the river but I can’t speak on any women who joined them… so… rivermen.

In Cincinnati, there were also both free Black citizens and White Southerners. There were planters. There were those who stole themselves and ran from slave owners and there were slave hunters.

There were about 3,000 Black people in Cincinnati by the time Duncanson arrived and the majority of them were former slaves.  Which was a huge concentration of free Black folks – among the largest in the U.S. at the time. Not only were they free, but were rather industrious as well, owning their own stuff. Their own property, their own stores, schools, churches, hotels and places to cut loose and entertain themselves.

There were leaders like John I Gains, an abolitionist and advocate for African American education. There was Robert J. Harlan, an entrepreneur, civil rights activist and politician. There was Peter H. Clark, an abolitionist, writer, publisher and orator. These men along with other Black leaders were highly respected and were instrumental in hiding fugitive slaves that crossed the Ohio River into freedom every night.

Like Duncanson, many Cincinnati artists were self-taught. What was popular then, were to paint portraits and panoramas. Panoramas were these huge panels of canvas, like eight feet high and they were rolled up on a giant vertical spool and slowly unreeled on a stage to reveal these epic scenes while a narrator described the scenery to a captive audience. The scenes were images of specific sights, like Niagara Falls or what could typically be seen on a trip down the Mississippi River. There were panoramas that even retold stories from the Bible and American history. Some depicted slave life. This was both educational and entertaining and the public ate it up! Loved it!

Outside of portraiture and panoramas, there were also a group of Cincinnati artists who gravitated to the beauty of the wilderness and turned to landscape painting with its transcendence of man’s daily grind and the wastefulness of civilization, to the deep spiritual connection to the wild. “God’s work.” So, landscape artists were also pulled into the panorama scene to create many of the epic landscapes to tell these stories.

In this city, Black artists were allowed to participate in the local art scene – somewhat – and gain recognition to their contributions to The Hudson River School of landscape painting. To be clear, The Hudson River School was not an actual school, just like the Underground Railroad was not an actual Railroad. Don’t let Colson Whitehead’s book fool you (although it’s really good! You should totally read it if you haven’t already – it’s called “The Underground Railroad” – I haven’t seen the movie so I can’t speak on that – but the book – amazing!).

So, no. The Hudson River School was an American art movement practiced by a group of landscape painters that explored three elements discovery, exploration and settlement – but approached in a dreamlike –romanticized way. The name comes from the fact that these paintings were usually of the Hudson River Valley and surrounding areas.

Remember, I said Black artists could participate – somewhat. They could… but… it was hard. I want you to imagine this city with its combination of abolitionists and free Black people and Southern plantation workers that controlled the city’s finances. Are you thinking about it?  There were three riots incited by Southern plantation owners in Cincinnati against the city’s Black citizens and abolitionists. In 1823, in 1836 and in 1841. The year Duncanson arrived.

Duncanson came in the spring of 1841 and joined his mother in her cottage on Hamilton Avenue in the village of Mount Pleasant (later renamed Mount Healthy because of the survival rate of its fortunate residents after the 1850 cholera epidemic – the village later became a city in 1951).

Then Duncanson, met a girl that caught his eye – or he caught hers, I don’t know which – and then got hitched! According to some sources his new bride had escaped slavery. They had a son named Reuben. At some point, poor Reuben dies, and it’s not clear from what or at what age, but he does make it to at least 18 because his dad helps him find a job as a clerk.

Back to his arrival. Duncanson is different. He’s a different kind of Black man. He was educated in Canadian public schools and didn’t suffer the constant harassment most African Americans did as children. He didn’t have the apprehension and inhibitions most African Americans did. He was sociable with everyone! He was good-humored. He was modest, but ambitious. And he had no qualms about declaring his intention of becoming a professional artist. That was crazy! No African Americans did that!

Then, in September 1841… remember that last riot I told you about? Yeah. That happened.

Langston Hughes: A brief history and a story

Langston Hughes was born, James Mercer Langston Hughes on February 1, 1902, in Joplin Missouri. He was partially named after his grandfather, John Mercer Langston, a free born attorney, abolitionist and politician and the founding dean of Howard University’s law school.

Hughes had a complicated upbringing, his dad left the family shortly after his birth and his mother left to go find work, which left him in the care of his maternal grandmother. It’s his grandmother who instilled Black pride in him and introduced him to the worlds inside of books where he’d happily lose himself. After the passing of his grandmother, he reunited with his mother who had remarried in Ohio, where he graduated from high school.

He briefly lived with his father in Mexico, but Hughes came back to the states after about a year and then attended Columbia University, but dropped out in 1922 because the racism among students and teachers there was just too much. After that he worked odd jobs. One was as a crewman for six months on the S.S. Malone where he got the chance to visit West Africa and Europe.

Hughes stayed in Paris for a short while where he met and engaged in a love affair with Anne Marie Coussey, a well-off Ghanaian woman, who was educated in England and was the sister of James Coussey, a judge of the Supreme Court of the Gold Coast. Her family didn’t approve of the pair and a friend of her father was sent to Paris to put an end to the love affair with Hughes.

By 1924, Hughes was back in the U.S., and in 1925, became the personal assistant to Carter G. Woodson at the Association for the Study of African American Life and History – though back then, it was called, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. Eventually, Hughes returned to school and attended Lincoln University and by 1929, received his B.A.   By the way, one of his classmates was Thurgood Marshall – the first African American Supreme Court Justice.

Hughes returned to New York.  Throughout his life, Hughes was a prolific writer. He wrote volumes of poetry and was published in newspapers and magazines, including a publication called, “The Crisis,” the official magazine for the NAACP in 1921, while still at Columbia. His first volume of poetry was published in 1926, titled, “The Weary Blues.” In 1930, his first novel, “Not Without Laughter,” won the Harmon Gold Medal for literature. In 1937, he traveled to Spain as a correspondent for the Baltimore Afro-American. In 1953 he was called before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations to deem whether or not he was a communist.

Of course, all that I’ve just told you is just the tip of the iceberg of what Hughes has accomplished. What I’ve given you is a very brief overview. Think of it more as an abstract. I didn’t even tell you about the Verve recording of his poems he performed with Thelonious Monk and Leonard Feather (the jazz-poetry you heard at the top of the episode).

Langston Hughes died on May 22, 1967, at the age of 66 after an abdominal surgery. His ashes lie beneath a floor medallion in the foyer of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem.

Now that you’ve heard a tiny bit about who he is and what he’s done, I’ll read one of Hughes’ short stories titled, “Thank You, Ma’am” found in an anthology edited by Hughes, titled, The Best Short Stories by Black Writers, published in 1967.

Louis Delsarte: The People’s Painter

Congas de Cuba
Louis Delsarte

According to the Louis Delsarte website, Delsarte’s parents were friends with artists and entertainers from the Harlem Renaissance like Lena Horne, Count Basie, Duke Ellington and Langston Hughes. Back then, it wasn’t called the Harlem Renaissance, it was called, “The New Negro Movement,” after the 1925 anthology edited by Alaine Locke titled, “The New Negro.” He was exposed to jazz, operas, musicals and the blues. This early exposure to various artistic expressions and practitioners of these expressions would leave its imprint on Delsarte and later influence his voice as an artist.


“Louis Delsarte: A painter for the people,” May 8, 2020, Shelia Poole, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

“How 9 Artists Keep Their Creativity Alive,”

David C. Driskell – Part II

Pines 1973 – Driskell

David C. Driskell – Part II

This is Part II of the two part series on David C. Driskell. I’ve listed my sources for the last two episodes below.

Also, when you get a chance, watch the HBO documentary titled, “Black Art: In the Absence of Light.” It’s based upon one of Driskell’s major exhibitions he organized and curated.


  1.  Genzlinger, Neil (April 7, 2020). “David Driskell, 88, Pivotal Champion of African-American Art, Dies“. New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2020. Print version, April 9, 2020, p. B12.
  2. “David Driskell – Artists – DC Moore Gallery”. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  3. McGee, Julie L. ( 2006). David C. Driskell: Artist and Scholar. San Francisco: Pomegranate Communications. ISBN 0764937472.
  4. Barnes, Bart (April 3, 2020). “David Driskell, advocate for African American art, dies at 88 of coronavirus”. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
  5. Crawford, Amy. “A New Retrospective of David Driskell, Artist and Scholar of African American Art, Comes to Atlanta”. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  6. “Two Centuries of Black American Art”. LACMA. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  7. “David Driskell: Icons of Nature and History”. High Museum of Art. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
  8. ^ “Coming Soon: ‘Icons of Nature and History,’ a Major Survey of David Driskell Opens at High Museum in Atlanta in February 2021”. Retrieved 2021-01-18.

David Driskell: Part I

This is the 1956 painting titled, “Behold Thy Son,” by David C. Driskell. The title of the painting comes from a Bible quote, from John, Chapter 19, verse 26. “When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, ‘Woman, behold thy son!’” This work was created as a tribute to Emmitt Till, the 14-year-old African American boy who was brutally tortured and murdered less than a year earlier. It addresses a mother’s heartbreaking loss of her son.

Driskell’s “Jazz Singer (Lady of Leisure, Fox) Discussion w/ ElleBeah

Discussion w/ ElleBeah: Jazz Singer (Lady of Leisure, Fox), 1974

This episode is a little different. I consider it a “pre-episode” episode. It’s more like an introduction into the work of David Driskell, the artist I’ll be covering next on The Whole Art Nebula. In this, I discuss his work titled, “Jazz Singer (Lady of Leisure, Fox)” with my good friend ElleBeah.

This is just a portion of a longer conversation. I’ve given access of the entire conversation to Patreon members at the Oasis level as in incentive to support our brand new art history podcast. To visit our Patreon page, go to, Otherwise, please enjoy.

Warning: This episode may cause laughter.

Ed Clark: The Innovator

The Football Game, 1952 – Nicolas de Staël

Untitled 1952, Paris – Ed Clark

The Big Egg, 1968 – Ed Clark

Ed Clark

I’d like to first start off by saying, in my initial research about the life of Ed Clark, there wasn’t a whole lot online about his personal background, such as family, childhood and so on. So, sometime in the future, I might go back in for a deeper dive to see what I can find.

Okay. What I did find was that Ed Clark was born in the Storyville section of New Orleans in 1926. Ten years before Clark was born, Storyville was referred to as, “The District,” where prostitution and brothels, though not legal, were tolerated. However, with World War I, came new rules, that stated brothels could not be within five miles of a Military Base. This came from the Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker. So, by 1917, the brothels were closed and by the 1930s most of the Storyville section of New Orleans was torn down and replaced with public housing because of The Great Depression.  As a child, still during the Depression era, he and his family moved to Chicago.


Painter Ed Clark Pushes Boundaries, Literally, Shana Nys Dambrot, LA Weekly (Sept. 10, 2020)

Passages, Ed Clark 1926-2019,  Jessica Bell Brown, Artforum International (Dec. 19, 2019)

Ed Clark, Abstract Painter Whose Brush was a Broom, Dies at 93, Emily Langor, The Washington Post (Oct. 24, 2019)

The Long Sweep. A Conversation with Ed Clark about His 60-Plus Years in the Art World, Jeff Edwards, Art Pulse Magazine (2013) 

Godfrey, Mark and Whitley, Zoe,: Soul of a Nation: Art in the Age of Black Power, 2017, p.86

Episode 3 Season 1: Frank J. Brown – Another Day…

Frank J. Brown

The sculpture is not very big. It measures 12 and a quarter inches by 11 and a half by 11 and a half. It’s an intertwined press of people around a structure, brown arms, legs and heads – frantically climbing on top of each other to get to the top – as if their lives depended on it.

It’s the awarded sculpture titled, “Hope for Tomorrow,” and was created by the sculptor and arts activist, Frank J. Brown.

  1.  Frank J. Brown (2002). “”Hope for Tomorrow” tzedakah box”. Minneapolis Institute of Art. Retrieved January 30,2017.
  2.  “Obituary for Frank J. Brown”Star Tribune. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  3. Melo, Frederick (October 3, 2013). “Lowertown St. Paul’s artists concerned about neighborhood changes”Pioneer PressSt. Paul, Minnesota.
  4. Peterson, Isaac. “Sculptor refuses to be pushed around by racism”Twin Cities Daily Planet.
  5. Halstead, Marilyn (November 21, 2014). “Artist Frank Brown visits Southern Illinois”The Southern Illinoisan.
  6.  “Rosario: Sculpting a legacy in the Saintly City”Twin Cities. 2018-08-19.
  7.  Harvey, Jennifer (August 31, 2009). “Seven-year exhibit delay leaves artist sadder, wiser”.
  8.  “Living For The Dream, 1993”Museum without Walls. cultureNOW.

December 6, 2020